Monday, September 30, 2019

The Admirable Priest

Leo Buscaglia, an American author and motivational speaker, once said â€Å"Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which can turn a life around†. In â€Å"First Confession† by Frank O’Connor, a priest shows compassion when a little boy is scared out of his wits because of his first confession. After the confession is over with Jackie, the little boy feels better about his sins and, because of how the priest dealt with him, Jackie, is no longer stressing his past actions. When dealing with the scared boy’s fear, the priest handles the situation with humor, kindness, and by sympathizing with the young boy. Humor can change ones outlook on a situation as a whole. The priest senses that Jackie is fearful of his first confession and decides to lighten that fear by using humor. After Jackie tells the priest his arranged plans to kill his grandmother, the priest pretends to be shocked by this comment and starts to question his motives. This shows the reader that the priest has a humorous side to his character. In response, the priest leads Jackie to believe that he has seen lots of men hanged for killing their grandmothers too, but none of them said it is worth it. He uses humor in this way by steering Jackie clear of the direction of not killing anyone. Although Jackie cannot tell that the priest is only kidding, this gives off a humorous vibe to the reader because we can tell the priest knows that Jackie is just a child and he means no harm to anyone. The priest is very kind towards Jackie as he acknowledges the boy’s sins. He helps Jackie come to the realization that he is not evil, but that everyone has their bad moments. The way the priest talks to Jackie as if they are friends lightens the mood and gets Jackie to open up more to the priest. After confession is over with, the priest gives the boy candy and even spends time talking with Jackie, showing the readers that there is a fondness between the two characters. Usually priests are thought to be strict individuals, but he shows us that he is still a person too. When handling children, one always needs to remember to be sympathetic because children do not always know the full consequences of their actions. Priests are forgiving people, but the priest in â€Å"First Confession† is so much more than just forgiving. The priest is sympathetic towards Jackie and gives him three Hail Marys as his punishment for planning to kill his grandmother and trying to kill his sister with a bread-knife. Taking into consideration that Jackie is a naive character who has been manipulated into thinking he is a horrifying person, the priest settles with three Hail Marys because he knows that Jackie is a in fact a great person. The priest shows the readers that he knows how to deal with children in a sympathetic manner. By being humorous, kind, and sympathetic towards Jackie, the priest exhibits his admirable character in the story â€Å"First Confession† by Frank O’Connor. With using his humorous character, the priest lightens the fear Jackie is feeling and turns it into an entertaining time for the boy. The priest is a kind individual, and readers can see that in the way he talks with Jackie and spends time with him. He sees that Jackie is an innocent boy who has been manipulated into thinking his actions are pure evil. In result he priest gives him little penance because he is only a boy with harmless intentions. The priest’s way of dealing with Jackie and his first confession turns the horrifying event into an entertaining encounter for both of them.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Grammar school Essay

From 1834, the year of emancipation of slaves in Dominica and the other British West Indian colonies to 1845, the popular education that was existent was really religious education. The concept of a state system of education in the West Indies emerged in Britain in 1833 as part of the act to emancipate slaves in British custody. Prior to that, the masses of the people had practically no formal education. In Dominica, from 1834 onwards, the British subsidized primary education through grants but basically, education was imported and promoted mainly by missionaries. The content of education was divorced from the interests and needs of the masses and the community. Emphasis was on the classics and the arts. There is little doubt that the churches original interest in education was the creation of influential educated elite. In practice, their interests were denominational, especially seen in the establishment of secondary schools. Proposed educational policies depended greatly on the availability of funds, which were always insufficient. Therefore, changes and reforms were minimal. The newly elected legislative councils and their leaders gave little support. In reality, education, in practice was for a privileged minority. The populace remained virtually ignorant and illiterate. The pre-emancipation society was therefore not in any sense an educated one. Where slaves received any instruction at all it was of a religious nature provided by the church at long intervals. The authorities had no aims or standards; hence there was no system of formal education. It was against this background that the British Imperial Government incorporated an education grant in the 1833 Act of Emancipation to assist in the educational development of the Negroes. Establishing schools for the masses was provided for by the Act, which included grant money from the imperial government to provide education in the ex-slave colonies. This grant money is known as the Negro Education Grant. It was regarded as an urgent matter. The total grant amounted to a mere ? 30,000 per annum for five years for all the BWI of almost one million people. The decision to allocate the grant was executed through the local legislatures and the religious bodies. The grant was decreased each year and ended in 1845. The denominations were offered financial help to build schools, and later to assist in the payment of teachers’ salaries as the best means of developing a system of education. Dominica’s share of the Grant amounted only to ? 600 to be spent on 14,000 ex-slaves. This amount was very insignificant and was spent mainly by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPCK). After two years it became apparent that the desired and intended results were not forthcoming because of the many difficulties faced. Some churches were unable to accept more grants because they could not bear the recurrent expenditure on their schools. In August 1837, the grant was switched to pay one-third of teachers’ salaries instead. This was insufficient, and the societies did not expand their operations further. As the expected expansion did not materialise the imperial government was disappointed. Hence, the union of the imperial government, local legislatures and the churches could not fulfil the early ambition to create a viable education system. Thus, in 1841, the imperial government started to withdraw the fund. The Mico trustees who had done the most protested, but to no avail. In 1845 it came to an end, and so the burden fell on the West Indian legislatures and workers to increasingly support the education of their own children. In Dominica, the drive towards education for the masses was assisted by the local legislature, thus complimenting the work done by charities and the churches so that by July 1840, Dominica had 20 schools, 10 teachers, 1,086 pupils and total average attendance was 750. The British Imperial Government gave two main reasons for ending the NEG: 1. English workers were said to be worse-off than West-Indian workers 2. The Baptists were said to be prospering – although they had refused all aid Both claims were false. The churches lacked both money and resources. The British felt in the case of Dominica that the Catholic Church could not and would not provide appropriate education. They therefore supported alternatives to church schools. They decided to provide secular schools and to withdraw grants to the church schools. This was strongly opposed until a compromise was reached. The main success of the period of the NEG was the idea of popular education. The Provision of Secondary Education in Dominica: Providers and Gender Issues From the foregoing, one can appreciate the fact that the provision of education was a task that involved the participation of several providers or stakeholders: The British Imperial Authority, the Local Legislature or Assembly, the Church (especially the Catholics) and the Charities (especially the Mico Trust). Prior to emancipation, the provision of education was the responsibility of the churches and the charities. Education was very limited and very few benefited. In reality, what ever was taught was basically religious education. With the passage of the Act of Emancipation, an attempt was made to establish popular education. The NEG thus provided the needed funds for this purpose but eventually ended in failure. These funds were channelled through the bodies mentioned above, especially through the charities and the churches. By 1868 the main providers were mainly the state (the Local Legislature) and the church. It must not be forgotten that the vast majority of the population were Catholics and therefore co-operation and compromise between the two bodies were of paramount importance. By that date, the majority of primary schools belonged to the state i. e. 18 out of 33 (54%). This was unique, for no other West Indian society had such participation by the state in educational provision. In the case of secondary education, the provision was by the Church (Catholic). The first establishment for the provision of secondary education was the Convent High School (CHS) in 1858. This was exclusively for the children of the local elite. The children of the rural peasantry and the working classes were excluded. The state provided some funds for the school. But there were no secondary education provided for the masses. It is again unique to Dominica in that early period that post-primary education was being provided only to girls when this gender was marginalized in the rest of the W. I and in Britain itself. Even today, in 2000, over 65% of secondary school students are girls. The figures for the Clifton Dupigny Community College, University of Technology (Jamaica) and University of the West Indies are roughly the same. In the case of Dominica, male marginalisation has had a long history, contrary to popular opinion. Due to mounting pressure and clamour for secondary education for boys and the children of the masses, the state established the Dominica Grammar School (DGS) on the 16th of January 1893, with a registration list of 25 boys under the headmastership of one tutor, Mr. W. Skinner (M. A – a graduate from Catherine’s College, Cambridge, England). It was to be run as a government school, with the aim to provide higher education for boys. The building being used was a personal gift from Mr. Dawbiney, a respectable Jamaican who had settled in the island. The DGS remained a boy’s school until 1972. This occurred at a time when the number of girls selected by the Common Entrance Examinations far surpassed that of boys. The first DGS girls came from the CHS and the WHS. The total number of girls on the roll for that year totalled 34 out of a total of 560 students. Thus a reluctant but necessary era commenced in that year – the DGS becoming a co-educational institution under the headship of Mr. J. K. Gough (B. Sc; Dip. Ed. from Scotland). In that same year there were 14 Dominican staff members who were university graduates. Not to be outdone by the Catholics, the Wesleyan Society (Methodists) following the tradition of their rivals, opened the second high school for girls in the island, the Wesley High School (WHS) in October 1927. By that year, 80% of the students accessing secondary education were girls. This again was a unique situation second to none in the W. I. This further marginalized the boys given the restrictive and limited nature of access at the time. At this juncture, it is necessary to appreciate the great effort expended by the churches in the provision of secondary education in the island of Dominica, albeit for denominational reasons. In 1932, the Christian Brothers (Catholics) opened the second educational establishment providing secondary education for boys, the Saint Mary’s Academy (SMA). By that year educational provision was roughly equal for both genders with boys now having the slight edge, notwithstanding the fact that the girls were doing better in entrance and scholarship exams. There were insufficient spaces available. An entrance examination would soon be rigorously applied to ration out, select and match the number of students to the available supply of places. This state of inequitable affairs became unbearable as the girls were now being marginalized in favour of boys who were securing less ‘passes’ than girls in the exams. In other words, the selection was a function of available places. The two boys’ schools had more places than the two girls’ schools. Therefore, fewer girls were selected although their average scores were higher than that of boys who secured places. In the1972/1973 school year, the Labour government of Mr. Edward Oliver Leblanc took the bold step to make the DGS co-educational. This occurred at a time when the number of girls who had succeeded at the Common Entrance Examinations far surpassed that of boys. Since then, girls have kept on increasing the education gap or divide to the extent that in Dominica and the West Indies this problem of ‘male marginalisation’ and ‘male underachievement’ and the like, have now become so serious that it threatens the whole concept of male patriarchy. The year 1972 has been regarded as a milestone in Dominica’s educational history as far as secondary education is concerned. From that year all new secondary schools have opted to become co-educational with the exception of the Saint Martin’s Secondary School in 1988. Another important milestone in our educational history is the year 1971. For the first time, secondary educational provision moved out of Roseau with the establishment of the co-educational Portsmouth Secondary School (PSS). This greatly reduced the cost burden to parents in the northwest, north and northeast of the island, who, hitherto had to make tremendous sacrifices to provide education for their children in the capital, Roseau. By 1974, the Common Entrance Examinations as a selector of educational life chances was psychologically so devastating to pupils that those who were not selected felt that they were ‘rejects’ and ‘failures’ with no hope or future. It was against this backdrop that a group of concerned persons headed by Ms. Jean Finucane-James decided to provide a ‘second chance’ to those pupils that was not based on a selective exam. This co-educational school was named the Dominica Community High School (DCHS). Apart from the PSS, the early 1970s were characterised for having secondary education concentrated in the capital city of Roseau. The ‘70s was a period of political upheaval. In August 1979, Hurricane David struck and the island was devastated: 43 deaths, massive destruction of crops and the forest, wildlife was decimated, schools and the social and economic infrastructure was destroyed. The economy came to a standstill. Educationally, the students suffered greatly. A large number of students from the northeast could not attend the Roseau schools. In the aftermath of the hurricane, two schools were opened in the northeast: St. Andrew’s High School (SAHS) in 1979, located in Londonderry which is run and operated by the Methodists and in 1980, the Marigot Foundation High School (MFHS) headed by Mr. Martin Roberts, a former Methodist minister. The last named school was eventually renamed the Marigot Secondary School (MSS) when in 1999 it passed over to the state. These two schools are co-educational institutions. In this catchment area the Common Entrance Exams consistently selects more girls than boys. In the 1980s four schools were established. In 1981, the Seventh-Day Adventists began to provide secondary education. The Seventh-day Adventist Secondary School (SASS) is located in the Portsmouth suburb of Granvillia. It is a co-ed school. In that very same year the co-ed St. Joseph Campus of the DGS was opened which later became a separate entity as the St. Joseph Secondary School. In 1996 it was renamed the Isaiah Thomas Secondary School. In 1988, two government co-ed secondary schools were established from what were formerly Junior Secondary Programmes: the Goodwill Secondary School (GSS) and the Grand Bay Secondary School (GBSS). In that same year, the Catholic–run St. Martin’s School for girls upgraded its technical/vocational wing into a fully-fledged secondary school called the St. Martin’s Secondary School (SMSS). With the opening of these new schools and the continued use of the Common Entrance Exams the gender balance continue to be in favour of girls to the detriment of boys. In October 1994 the Nehemiah Christian Foundation headed by Mrs. Rhoda George opened the Nehemiah Comprehensive School with 60 boys and girls. The school is located in Jimmit, Mahaut. In the financial year 1995/96 the government entered into a loan agreement  with the World Bank to fund the Basic Education Reform Project (BERP). One of the three main objectives of the project was to expand access to secondary education. Under the project, this objective was fulfilled in the co-ed Castle Bruce Secondary School (CBSS) in 1998. TABLE I DOMINICA: Academic Secondary Schools, 2002/03 |School |Year Founded |Boys |Girls |Total |Status | |Convent High School | | | | | | | |1858 |0 |493 |493 |Assisted | |Dominica Grammar School |1893 |518 |281 |799 |State | |Wesley High School |1927 |0 |287 |287 |Assisted | |St. Mary’s Academy |1932 |420 |0 |420 |Assisted | |Portsmouth Secondary School |1971 |402 |435 |837 |State | |Dominica Community High School |1975 |79 |46 |125 |Assisted | |St. Andrew’s High School |1979 |233 |292 |525 |Assisted | |Marigot Secondary School |1980 |86 |59 |145 |Assisted | |Isaiah Thomas Secondary School |1981 |312 |393 |705 |State | |SDA Secondary School |1981 |108 |87 |195 |Private | |St. Martin’s Secondary School |1988 |0 |306 |306 |Assisted | |Goodwill Secondary School |1988 |380 |262 |642. |State | |Grand Bay Secondary School |1988 |334 |343 |677 |State | |Nehemiah Comprehensive School |1994 |64 |73 |137 |Assisted | |Castle Bruce Secondary School |1998 |266 |291 |557 |State | |Orion Academy |2003 | | | |Private | |Total | |3 202 |3 648 |6 850 | | Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth Affairs, 2002/03 The School Curriculum Several factors impinge on the development of the curriculum in Dominica: slavery, colonialism, politics, economics, religion, socio-cultural biases, parents, teachers and the learners themselves. In the pre-emancipation era the curriculum that existed was of a religious nature. The society was largely illiterate and ignorant. There existed no notion or idea of popular or mass education. With emancipation in 1834, the rudiments of a system of education began to take shape. The limited curriculum was non-scientific and bookishly academic based on rote and memory teaching and learning. By 1868, as the primary system took root the three r’s were taught namely reading, writing and arithmetic. The system that was taking shape was one that would provide labourers and servants and no more. At the secondary level, the curriculum catered for the children of the elite: Maths, Science, Geography, English, Greek, and Latin. The colonial powers and the local legislatures controlled the educational system. In other words, the ruling elites/classes decided who should be taught, what should be taught, when, how and where. The entire process from start to finish was decided for the learner. In 1899, Agriculture was being promoted as a subject to be taught so that the learner would become an agricultural labourer or worker on an estate or join the ranks of the impoverished peasantry. So agricultural schools were encouraged. In this way the islands would remain as sources of primary agricultural produce. When the British abolished the local legislatures and imposed direct crown colony rule the curriculum again was being used as a tool to keep the masses in their place. It limited them to learn the basics and agriculture. Attempts were made to improve education at the end of the First World War (1914-1918): salaries to teachers, payments by results and attempts at compulsory education. The West Indian Conference in Dominica in 1932 urged the region to struggle for compulsory education among other things. This failed. In 1957, the ministerial system was brought to Dominica with some exercise of authority by the house of assembly. But power still lied with the British parliament. Budgets could be passed, but had to be approved by Britain. In 1967, Dominica became an associate state with Gt. Britain. All internal matters were under local jurisdiction, but foreign affairs, trade and defence resided with Gt. Britain. Dominica could now influence and shape educational progress, but very little happened. The primary system continued to develop. The high schools became stagnant. The last one to be established was in 1936 (SMA). Thirty-seven years passed before the next one, the PSS was established. By 1978, the curriculum at the primary was now being driven by the Common Entrance Examinations to the detriment of all else. The same thing could be found at the secondary schools. The entire curriculum was driven by foreign external examinations. The foreign element was removed in 1985 when we switched from the Cambridge and London GCE ‘O’ Levels to the regionally based CXC examinations. But the GCE ‘A’ Levels still continue to dictate the curriculum at the post-secondary level. In 1998, CXC began to test pilot its own ‘A’ Levels known as CAPE, which will soon replace the English-based GCE ‘A’ Levels. The School Curriculum and Examinations The CXC and the GCE curriculum dictate the locus and focus of secondary education in Dominica. These exams cater for the 30-40% of the ability range of secondary students. The entire curriculum was driven by foreign external examinations. The foreign element was removed in 1985 when we switched from the Cambridge and London GCE ‘O’ Levels to the regionally based CXC examinations. But the GCE ‘A’ Levels still continue to dictate the curriculum at the post-secondary level. In 1998, CXC began to test pilot its own ‘A’ Levels known as CAPE, which will soon replace the English-based GCE ‘A’ Levels. The HSC, LSC and GCE dominated the curriculum of secondary schools since the 1880s. The failure rates were very high at both the ‘O’ and ‘A’ Levels. It was also a drain on the scarce resources of the region. The minimum of 5 ‘O’ Level subjects were required to move into the sixth form and five subjects were needed of which 2 must be at ‘A’ Level for university entry. The Caribbean was influenced by educational and curriculum developments in North America and Europe, especially Britain. Revolutionary curricular changes in maths and science were being undertaken in the USA as a result of the Russian success in Sputnik I. In the U. K, the Nuffield Foundation invested heavily in a science development project. In 1969-70, the West Indian Science Curriculum Innovation Project (WISCIP) began at St. Augustine, UWI, and Trinidad. It was a new approach with emphasis on enquiry and experimentation, understanding and constructive thinking. This was introduced in the DGS and the other high schools of the time. During that same period ‘New Mathematics’ was introduced in the schools’ curriculum. All five of the secondary schools in Dominica adopted it. The Convent High School had their first ‘O’ Level candidates in 1971, and the DGS in 1972. Results in all Caribbean schools were not so good at first because of the unfamiliarity with the new approaches and topics such as inverses, identities, algebra of sets and matrices, decimalisation and metrification, vectors, inequalities and topology. At first most of the schools used the School Mathematics Project (SMP) books, but these were replaced by the Joint Schools Project (Caribbean edition) series, as part of the CEDO/UNESCO/UWI Caribbean Mathematics Project. The CXC was established in 1972 to serve the Commonwealth Caribbean. The process took over 10 years. The CXC was to replace the GCE exams. It would develop syllabi, conduct exams and issue certificates. This was a form of asserting cultural and intellectual independence from our colonial past and from Britain. Politically, the Caribbean has eschewed integration. There was the West Indian Federation as colonies of Britain (1958-1962). It ended in failure due to insularity, nationalism and dependency. With independence, the nations can dictate their educational goals and match these to national needs. In Dominica, we have not had a long history of educational reforms established in law. In 1949 an Education Act was passed to regulate and govern the sector. This was changed in 1997 when the new Education Act was passed. This was part of an attempt to harmonise education legislation in the Eastern Caribbean. In 1995 the Basic Education Reform Project was launched (BERP). The Project had three main objectives: 1. to strengthen the management and planning capacity of the Ministry, 2. to enhance the quality of education, and 3. to expand and conserve school places. Economically, we live in an interdependent world, a global village. We are partners bargaining from a position of weakness. Unequal terms of trade, onerous foreign debts, trade deficits and balance of payment problems deplete our resources so that our educational budgets are severely constrained. In general (1999 – 2004), Dominica spends about 17% of its recurrent budget on education, 1-2% on materials and supplies and about 80% on personal emoluments. New Curriculum Developments. Primary schools follow a curriculum, which has recently been reviewed by the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU). Schools have been provided with curriculum guides for English Language, Mathematics and General Science for Grades K to 6. Curriculum guides for Social Studies, Mathematics, Science and English Language were to become available in September 1999 for grades K to 6. A curriculum guide for Social Studies has been prepared for Form 1 at the secondary level. Workbooks for Grades k to 3 for English were to have been made available from September 1999. In addition a curriculum guide for Health and Family Life covering primary and secondary age ranges is being monitored and supported in schools. A draft national policy for this was presented to Cabinet in August 1998 but has not yet been officially approved. The CDU has planned to review Music, PE, Art and Craft, and Agriculture in 2001 as well as to start writing and production of support materials for pupils and teachers. The revised primary schools curriculum appears to be appropriate at the national level. The main problem appears to be in its delivery. The main need at the primary level for curriculum development is in relation to adapting the teacher’s guides for multigrade teaching and provision of differentiated activities for all subjects and all classrooms. Dominica does not have a National Curriculum and therefore, the curriculum de facto is determined by each school and in practice is closely related to the requirements of the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) other external examinations and higher ability students. A balance needs to be struck between the academic and practical skills education in the secondary sector in any future national curriculum. The Ministry of Education has outlined the following process to arrive at the promulgation and implementation of the National Curriculum (NC): National Curriculum Committee (NCC) established in school year 1999/2000 NCC reviews existing curriculum: locally and regionally Under the NCC, Subject Teams and Subject Areas are established Development of Syllabi, and Curriculum Guides in Core Subject Areas Curriculum Training of Staff/Subject Team Members Resource Provision First Draft National Curriculum in Core Subject Areas Review of Draft Curriculum Development of Curricula in other subject areas. Establishment of National Norms and Standards for all subjects Piloting of National Curriculum in a cross-section of schools Promulgation of National Curriculum by Minister of Education Use by all schools of the National Curriculum as of September 2003 The Secondary Education Support Project (SESP) had been working with the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) to write and pilot a revised curriculum for Forms 1 to 3 in the core subjects of English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies, incorporating activities for average and below average ability pupils. Drafts of curriculum guides for Form 1 have been completed and were made available to schools in September 1999. All the guides for the four core subjects were made available in 2001. The CDU also has completed work in Music, Art, Craft, and Agriculture. However, the major curriculum need resides in the consideration of a curriculum which will meet the needs of all students – academic, technical/vocational, aesthetic, spiritual, moral and for citizenship and fulfill the ambitions set out in the 1997 Education Act. This would be especially so when Universal Secondary Education is achieved.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

The Chicago World's Fair and the the impact on urban life and cities Research Paper

The Chicago World's Fair and the the impact on urban life and cities in America - Research Paper Example Atwood terminating the vista out to Lake Michigan† (Burnham 1989, pg. 17) In addition to these architectural structures a number of other exhibits exited that features cutting edge technology and designs that have since made an indelible impact on the American city. These influences coupled with influences in music, art, literature, and even the very leaders of the organization have all been argued by researchers to have had a considerable influence on American cities and urban life. This essay considers the impact these objects of culture and commerce that were featured at the Chicago’s World Fair have had on American cities and urban life by tracing the impact through the considerable effects of the Beaux Arts architectural style, to the various cultural influences, and finally the influences in the very fabric of consumer culture and society that were developed and have remain prominent in contemporary American culture. In an effort to create a unifying effect among the newly designed structures that surrounded the Court of Honor, building designs followed the style of the Italian Renaissance. The exposition was regarded as an enormous success by the architects and visitors of the day and the white stucco used in the buildings stood out against the Chicago tenements, leading to the structures being referred to as the White City. These buildings also featured, â€Å"a common material, stucco (plaster), painted white; and would maintain a uniform sixty-foot-high cornice line† (Moffett and Wodehouse, 2008, pg. 232) As a result of the exposition’s critical and popular success, the ornate Beaux-Arts style was adopted by many American buildings and civic projects including trains stations, art museums, city halls, post offices, and churches. In great part the success of the exposition overshadowed the fact that the buildings it featured weren’t notably technically advanced and

Friday, September 27, 2019

Race Relations Act 1976 And The Actions That Athea And The Commission Essay

Race Relations Act 1976 And The Actions That Athea And The Commission For Racial Equality Could Take In Respect Of Them - Essay Example In the U.K. the Government has recognized the importance of preserving equality and civil liberties in the interest of overall progress in the State. The Race Relations Act framed in 1976 specifically deals with discrimination on the grounds of race in the fields of employment, training education, housing and other services deemed necessary to ensure that the civil liberties of an individual are not hampered*3. This act was further amended in 2000 to incorporate discrimination from all public bodies. Chapter 74, Section 1 of the Race relations Act sets out the grounds that will constitute a violation of the provisions of the Act by any person when â€Å"on racial grounds, he treats that other less favorably than he treats or would treat other persons† especially when â€Å"he cannot show [it] to be justifiable, irrespective of the color, race, nationality or ethnic or national origins of the person to whom it is applied.† Part II of the Act deals specifically with discr imination exercised by employers and under Section 4, an employer’s action would also be deemed to be unlawful under the provisions of this act if he discriminates against an employee or potential employee by â€Å"refusing or deliberately omitting to offer him that employment.†

Thursday, September 26, 2019

How to maxamize revenue at small business marina on a lake Research Paper

How to maxamize revenue at small business marina on a lake - Research Paper Example This is because well established large scale businesses enjoy economies of scale when they offer large scale products. Furthermore, well established business can afford to hire qualified workforce and provide employee training that result to efficiency of operations. Small lake marinas face stiff competitions for customers from the public operated marinas and big lake marinas. The big lake marinas and public run marinas have stable sources of finances to finance their activities. In addition, due to large scale of operation the rival marina owners are able to enjoy low cost recreational services hence enabling them to charge their clients competitive fees. Also, the public marinas and big lake marinas are able to provide better services to their clients due to their ability to hire qualified workers (Cooper, & Burke, 2011). There are other cheaper alternative recreational facilities that limit the performance of marinas; hence marina operators should utilize efficient technology to p rovide a wide range of recreation facilities and increase business profitability. The growth of small business revenue depends on the managers ability to use the finances appropriately throughout the financial year. Many businesses face characteristic fluctuations in the flow of finances since in some periods the income is lower than the cost with some seasons of huge sales hence greater incomes (Kariv, 2013). Therefore, since the fixed cost of running the business remains constant throughout the year, the business managers should be able to distribute their incomes throughout the financial year. However, small scale businesses are rarely able to distribute their finances throughout the year because of lack of financial reserves (Prosek, 2011). For this reason, small scale business relies heavily on borrowings from banks and other financial institutions that charge interest on the loans hence reducing the business

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Fabrication in architectural design process Thesis Proposal

Fabrication in architectural design process - Thesis Proposal Example If a 3d printing or other fabrication method is employed, then there is the need to convert into a particular file for the sake of digital models. Digital fabrication tools are very essential in architecture because of attainable mitigation of the building costs. Free form shaped design in the design stage for countless unique components need some rationalization of the structural constituents so that they are materialized into buildings. In post-rationalization period, the structural system has been assigned to the already polished designs that at times need compromising final form of design (Laseau, P, 1980). The egg shaped form had to be reshaped with the use of Planar Quadrilateral Strips for it to meet the criteria for fabrication. While the relationship between design objects and the fabrication parameters has been explored previously, their independent was quite limited to integration of manufacturing constraints into developing a form, as it is the case of co-rationalized and pre-rationalization design approaches. In consideration of the application of a particular digital fabrication method, this paper proposes a research to be conducted to investigate the design-fabrication relation, approaching it from a different angle. This is in an attempt to respond to the question inquiring how the manufacturing parameters are integrated in the design process in facilitating the design-to-production communications. Design rationalization parameters, in this respect, are the driving force of any design in a generative procedure having imbedded fabrication. Digitally driven Architectures has significantly influenced the modernist architecture, as well as contemporary architecture (Malcolm, M, William, J, & Patrick, P, 1990). The influence of digital media, as well as Information Technology on the architectural education

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 20

History - Essay Example The magnitude of this case was clear from the onset as the burden of proof was left in the hands of top government legal practitioners. No greater expectation was put on the side of the petitioner, Mr. Lochner, whom many thought, would lose. The case was about the working environments in the bakeries and Mr. Lochnerhad been fined by the court for extending the working hours for his employee thereby bridging the rules stipulated by the state. The working hours in the bakeries were to be not more than 10 hour a day averaging to about 60 hours a week (Bernstein, 2005). However, Mr. Lochner argued his case based on individual contract and that the state policing power had no rights in interfering in such private issues. The Supreme Court ruling on this case would spark serious indifference that would be felt over a long period (Bernstein, 2005). The sitting judges of the Supreme Court at that time lead by Justice Peckam who declared their decision voting 5-4 in support of the case (Bernstein, 2005). They argued that the contracts in the bakery were a matter that would be derived from the Fourth amendment. The Fourth Amendment stipulated that "All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring and possessing and protecting property: and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness (Bernstein, 2005)." The ruling cited supported the ruling by arguing that the state had no right in how an individual entered into a contract. This was in reference to a previous case in 1897 between Allgeryer and Louisiana in which the liberty of contract clause was due applied (Bernstein, 2005). This was mainly geared to put off the foreign investors from the competition with the already bakeshops in the state. Their decision would later be termed as judicial activism in favor of individual interest and the supporting economic liberty while depriving

Monday, September 23, 2019

Advertising to the Other 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Advertising to the Other 1 - Essay Example The Canadian oil sands have been discussed in many studies. The most prominent of those studies discuss the environmental benefits and costs of the project. In other studies, the cost of production vis-Ã  -vis the cost of the oil is highlighted. Of all this studies, the most prominent thing that stands out is the negative effects of the project to the environment of the province of Alberta. This implies that the acceptability of the project to the people is relative. As a means to generate acceptability, there has been an extensive need to advertise the project. Advertising the project is vital because it will make it acceptable to the population that is constantly disgruntled due to environmental factors and global issues (Mehra, 2009). Canada’s energy – water advertisement has been advanced in this campaign. In this advertisement, the Canadian oil sands explain the fact that all the water that is used in the processing of the energy is being recycled and reused over and over. The main product that is being advertised is the fossil fuels that are being produced by the Canadian oil sand companies. In fact, it gives the fact that over 80 percent of the water that is being used by the companies is being recycled. It also illustrates the fact that only a very small percentage is being wasted due to the salinity of the water from the underground process. The targeted audience for this campaign ad is the population who are interested in querying the effectiveness of the mining of oil from the sand. This group informs the general public on the dangers of the mining process (Mehra, 2009). In this attempt, the group creates a level of resentment between the public and the products of the Canadian oil sands companies. Each and every advert is aimed at communicating the importance of a good or service to the target group. In this case, the advert is mainly focused on making the target market gets the feeling that the production of

Sunday, September 22, 2019

PCL Construction Paper 1 Term Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

PCL Construction 1 - Term Paper Example Based on the large number of employees who have been hired by the PLC construction companies, they have significantly contributed to the growth of the US economy. This has been attained from the high tax on their annual and monthly incomes. Most importantly, the construction companies embark on designing and construction of factories, learning institutions, government houses, hospitals, research centers and roads among others. Thus, the construction industry plays a vital role in the growth of the US economy. This paper seeks to discuss a profile of Parsons Corporation; a US based international construction company. Having been founded in 1944 by Ralph Parsons, Parsons Corporation is a construction company with a strong financial background that is based on the various large projects that the company has undertaken in US and in other countries. The company whose headquarters are located in Pasadena, California is highly involved in designing and construction of large projects such as industrial facilities. Parsons organizational structure consists of the chief executive officer, corporate and operations support, international and North America markets units and regional business units (Ralph, 1978). The board of directors is made up eleven members namely Charles Harrington, Curtis Bower, Kenneth Dahlberg, Steven Leer, Lawrence Jackson, William Kinsey, James McGovern, Tamara Lundgren, Chritian Mitchell, Mark Holdsworth and Admiraj Zlatoper. In his effort to create strong relationship with its customers and the society, the Ralph Foundation was established by Ralph Parsons to provide charitable s ervices to the members of the society who are poor or in need of other forms of help. Additionally, the company fulfills its corporate duties by employing six key aspects or values. These values include diversity, innovation, safety, sustainability, integrity and quality

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Alberto Korda Essay Example for Free

Alberto Korda Essay The history of Spanish culture and their historic events have been captured through art for centuries. Photography is one form of art that has documented and symbolized historic events that are still used today as historical documents. A Cuban photographer, Alberto Diaz Gutierrez, also known as Alberto Korda, famously documented the events of the Cuban Revolution. Alberto Korda became the world’s most famous Cuban photographer for his photography, documenting history of the revolution with over 55,000 revolutionary themed photographs. Korda was born in Havana Cuba in 1928. He taught himself about photography with his father’s camera, leading to capturing some of the world’s most famous photographs known today. Korda’s career began shooting photographs at weddings and baptisms, and selling his photo’s as souvenirs at the event after he developed them. In 1953 Korda opened up his own studio with photographer Luis Pierce. When the studio first opened, they were accepting any jobs that they came across from advertising to fashion jobs. Korda’s style of photography was distinctive from the traditional photographers style. Korda was different from the traditional style because he disliked artificial lighting and only used natural light in his studio. Korda was quoted saying that artificial lighting was â€Å"a travesty of reality.† It was Korda’s unique style that helped him become widely recognized in the fashion world photography. He quickly established himself as Cuba’s leading fashion photographer. This unique style of untraditional photography led his business to becoming more then a photography studio, but an art studio. In 1959, Korda hit a turning point in his career, the Cuban Revolution. When the Cuban Revolution began, a newspaper was created which was different from most, in which it had many more photographs than articles documenting the uprising events in Cuba. Korda was sent with a team of photographers from the paper to the United States to document the events while Fidel Castro was visiting the United States in 1959. One of the first monumental photographs taken during the visit was a photo of Castro’s visit to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C, photographed by Korda. From then on, Korda became Castro’s personal photographer; following Castro wherever the revolution took him Korda went, traveling throughout Cuba and overseas. On an assignment after the guerrillas defeated dictator Fulgencia Batista, Korda encountered such extreme poverty that changed his life, transforming himself to become a part of the revolutionary cause. Korda said, â€Å"Nearing 30, I was heading toward a frivolous life when an exceptional event transformed my life: The Cuban Revolution. It was at this time that I took this photo of a little girl, who was clutching a piece of wood for a doll. I came to understand that it was worth dedicating my work to a revolution which aimed to remove these inequalities.† The photograph was named La Nina de la Muneca de Palo. One of the images that Korda captured of the leaders involved was of Fidel and Nikita Khrushchev, illustrating the differences in each of them that were obvious in their individual politics. He continued to follow the new Cuban leaders wherever the revolution took them, Korda followed. Fidel returned to Sierra Maestra, in 1959, where the attacks of Fulgencio Batista regime began. Korda would always get himself in front of the uprisings Fidel was leading in order to get the photographs he wanted. Whenever Korda was return home, he would develop the documentary images and give them to the newspaper to print. During the trip to Sierra Maestra, Korda snapped many pictures and named the series of photos â€Å"Fidel Returns to Sierra.† In 1960, Korda captured a worldwide symbol of revolution and rebellion, the iconic image of Che Guevara. The image was taken at a protest rally after a Belgian freighter carrying arms to Cuba was blown up by counterrevolutionaries while being unloaded in Havana harbor, killing more then 100 people. Doctor Ernesto Che Guevara joined revolutionaries to help save lives, but during a historic battle, her took up arms and came a symbolic freedom fighter. This photograph of Che Guevara captured by Alberto Korda is considered to be the most iconic image in human history. Every one of Alberto Korda’s photographs of the revolution was symbols of the revolution. He wanted to help complete the goals that were thought to be what the revolution was about. He dedicated his life to Fidel Castro as an official photographer, a friend, and a personal photographer. Korda did not get paid to be Fidel’s photographer. Korda more recently spoke in Havana and said, â€Å"Life may not have granted me a great fortune in money, but it has given me the even greater fortune of becoming a figure in the history of photography.† Korda had a passion for photography, his country, and the causes of the revolution.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Political Factors Affecting Education

Political Factors Affecting Education Education is the most important shared experienced in our lives it is so important and so all-pervasive that it is almost impossible to define. Education will not supply all the answers to the problems that beset us, either as individuals or as a nation, but if we set about it the right way, it is the best single means of promoting intellectual, moral, physical and economic wellbeing (Aldrich 1996 ). Education teaches us the joy of learning and gives us the qualifications for employment, which builds confidence and self esteem and gives us the skills and values to meet the demands of a fast changing worlds and society. (Estelle 2001 quoted in Chitty, C 2009). As education meet the demands of society so society is itself is a product of that knowledge or education which informs societal attitudes towards life and its problems, the value it attaches to the things of the world in general, the place of man in the universe in particular and the norm sets to which our thoughts and behavior must conform. The two contrasting regions of Peshawar and Khyber Agency in Pakistan have been selected for critical analysis and evaluation of the impact of varying social and political forces on the provision and type of education available in each area. Peshawar is a large city having a population of 2.9 million in 2005. The population is growing by 3.2 % annually and this growth rate is higher than most other Pakistani cities (Hayat 2006). Peshawars residents consist mainly of Pashtoon people with Hindkowans as the minority group. Languages such as Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Khowar, Dari, Hindko, Saraiki and Punjabi are spoken in Peshawar. Peshawar can be sub-divided into two distinct regions, namely the urban region, which accounts for 51.32 % of the population, and the rural area with holds the remaining 48.68 % of the population. The population had increased two fold in the previous two decades. (Gaffar 2005) .The area of Peshawar district extends from Warsak north to south Matani, a distance of over 30 miles, and 18 miles from Hayatabad east to Taro Jaba in the west. It is located at an altitude of 1138ft above sea level. Most of the citys dwellers are Muslims with some Hindus, Sikhs and Christians minorities. Historically Peshawar was the centre of the Indus civilization and home to many other communities like Bukharan Jews and Zoroastrians (Arbab 2000). The second area to be evaluated is that of Khyber Agency. Khyber Agency is a Federally Administered Tribal area of Pakistan. It encompasses an area ranging from Tirah valley to the Peshawar district. It borders Afghanistan to the East, Orakzai Agency to the north and Peshawar to the west. There are four main tribes the Mullagori, Shalmani, Shinwari and Afridi in Khyber Agency. According to 2007 estimates, Khyber Agency had a literacy rate of 34.2%. In world literacy rankings, Pakistan is listed as 160th of 177 countries, with an overall literacy rate of 49.9 %( Noreen 2008). The reason for selecting these Peshawar and Khyber Agency is that, whilst they are geographically close, they demonstrate clear differences in the type and standard of education they provide. These differences can, therefore, be usefully evaluated in terms of the social and political forces acting upon them. One such significant factor, is that Khyber agency has become a focal point for the war against terrorism which, this paper will argue, has been a dominant cause in the deterioration of the education system in that region. Before analyzing and evaluating the provision of education by the state, it is a matter to be taken in notice that high regard is accorded to education in Pakistan is enshrined in the constitution with education on the agreed legislative list of the central and provincial government. The 1973 constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan recognizes the importance of education and says that the state shall: Encourage unity and observance of the Islamic moral standards Endorse with special care the educational and economic interests of backward areas. Eradicate illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education. Make technical and professional education generally available and higher education accessible to all on the basis of merit. Enable the people of different areas, through education, training, agriculture and industrial development and other methods, to participate fully in all forms of national activities including employment in the services of Pakistan. Ensure full participation of women in all the spheres of national life (National education policy 2010) In many developed countries of the world the school system has been divided into the state school and private school sectors. The commentators Adonis and Pollard have recently complained that the education system in England is based on a division between state and private (so called public ) schools with prestige and resources going mainly to the later rather then to the former (Adonis, A and Pollard S 1998). Like Great Britain, education system in Pakistan is also divided into state and private school. The existing state school systems in both Peshawar and Khyber agency are almost the same as that are provided in the rest of Pakistan. In Peshawar and Khyber agency, however, the school system has a further sub-division having state schools, private schools and madrassa schools. Private schools are considered schools for the upper classes, entry to which are generally limited to students from rich families, whilst state schools are generally for lower, middle class people. Madrassa, however, are for those children from lower class family backgrounds who do not have an access to any of the above mentioned schools for a variety of reasons; a key factor being accessibility. The students of madrassa depend solely on charities provided by the general public. In Peshawar only 4.6 million students are enrolled in the Public Sector, Private Sector and Madrassa. The remaining 2.8 million children have no access to formal education (Hussein 2007). Average dropout rates up to Matriculation level are at 38% annually. There are many factors that impact on the drop out including access problems, social and cultural issues particularly among females, poverty, ignorance, lack of financial resources,(with government and families) corporal punishment and so on. More than half of the children in Peshawar drop out of school before completing the fifth grade. On average, females remain in school for 1.3 years and males for 3.8 years. (Sohrab 2007) The education system in both areas is broadly divided into three stages namely; Primary, Secondary and Higher education. The pre school stage is introduced for children less then 5 years old and is further divided into three stages, play group, Nursery and Kinder Garden. Students progress from Primary schools to Middle schools and then High school. After completing High school (SSC), successful students progress to college, and is called Higher Secondary State Education (HSSC). After Primary Education, unisex education is the communities preferred choice but co-education does exist in Private Institution in Peshawar although not in Khyber Agency. The curriculum is usually designed by the federal curriculum bureau in Islamabad with prominent educationalists setting the objectives of the curriculum. Every province has its own text book boards who implement the curriculum made by the federal curriculum bureau. The provincial text book board has limited authority but can make some change s to the curriculum, subject to the approval of federal curriculum bureau. The provincial text book board conducts and monitors exams through different exam boards. (Iqbal 2007)The curriculum designed by the federal bureau is implemented in both private and state schools in Peshawar and Khyber Agency. O level and A level education system is employed in private sector in Peshawar. In Both private and state institutions the common subjects are Urdu, English, Maths, Social Studies, Islamyat, Computer science, and other science subjects like Chemistry, Physics and Biology. In Private schools, the medium of instruction is English whilst state schools teach in Urdu. (Majeed 2007). Secondary education teaches the boy{sic} to apply the principle he is learning, and so to learn the principles by applying them, or so to use the instruments he is being made to know, as to perform or produce something, interpret literature or a science, make a picture or a book, practice a plastic or a manual a rt, convince a jury or persuade a senate, translate or annotate an author, dye wool, weave cloth, design or construct a machine, navigate a ship or command an army (Bryce 1895). Secondary education is viewed as preparing students for entry into a career and that is why, after gaining the higher secondary school certificate (HSSC), students in both areas can appear in the entry test for professional institutions like medical and engineering colleges. Those who are unsuccessful in the entry tests follow the arts path or other science subjects. Higher education takes students up to PhD level. Since 2002, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) has been empowered to carry out assessment, improvement and promotion of higher education, research and development, devise policies, guiding principles and priorities for higher education institutions and to set down conditions under which institutions, including those that are not part of the State educational system, may be opened and operated. The mandate of HEC encompasses all degree granting universities and institutions, both in public and private sectors and supports the attainment of quality education by facilitating and co-coordinating self-assessment of academic programs and their external review by national and international experts. HEC also supervises the planning, development and accreditation of public and private sector higher education institutions. Its goal is to facilitate the educational reform process (Ghani 2006). The main distinguishing features in the provision and type of education system in each area is due to differences in the implementation of educational strategies and the number and types of educational institutions available. There are plenty of schools, colleges and universities flourishing in Peshawar but not in Khyber Agency. Indeed, in Khyber Agency there are no universities or other professional colleges at all. After graduating from secondary school, the students of Khyber Agency must move to Peshawar or other parts of Pakistan, depending on their family circumstances, if they are to continue their education. Students from Khyber Agency face an additional problem when seeking admission to the institutions in Peshawar because of their tribal domicile, as the constitution of Pakistan limits, via a fixed quota, the number of Khyber Agency residents who can be admitted to State Professional colleges. Those students who do not come in the quota system have to pay for their education in private institutions. Those who can not afford these expenses are left/remain without further education. There are number of social factors that play into the poor public provision of education in Khyber Agency. These include low level of awareness among parents, low income status, lack of administration and control, less parental involvement, less opportunity to study, parents relationship with institutions and teachers, low literacy ratio, peer rejection, regarding its outcomes and impact on household well-being. The parents in Khyber Agency often lack the necessary vision to see the benefits that education can bring to the future of their children. Further difficulties such as the non-availability of transportation, communication and health, social and family priorities, influence often negatively the educational opportunities of students. Clear differences exist in the administration of education within the two regions. The expenditure of funds and the nature and scope of educational planning has affected the education system in Khyber Agency. Poor Economic conditions is another factor that lower the literacy rate of Khyber agency to below that of Peshawar region. The persistent under-investment by successive governments in Khyber Agency has left many schools, poorly resourced and lacking in physical infrastructure. Academic institutions, with few exceptions face financial problems and constraints. Mostly Public sector schools face financial constraints due to the high burden of students in crowed institutions where facilities for students are minimal. If financially possible, parents utilize the services of private institutions to help their children get better education. Alternatively, parents may employ external/private tuition or coaching to enhance their childrens competence because, as mentioned, most state schools are overcrowded with high students numbers per class which prohibits adequate student teacher interaction. In Khyber Agency, the average income of parents prevents most families from seeking to enroll their children into the higher standard and more competitive institutions or opt for external tuition and coaching. It is generally acknowledged that the education department as a whole is the most badly administered governmental sector in Pakistan in spite of the fact that educat ion plays such a vital role in the development of any country. As mentioned earlier, the national government has never allotted the necessary resources to this department, resulting in a poor literacy rate country-wide. A structured system for funding education is necessary based on local community needs and subject to audit control at regional level. In both regions, especially in Khyber Agency, current provision is characterized by poor governance and management, a traditional way of teaching, an outdated and inflexible curriculum, lack of qualified educators, inappropriate utilization of existing infrastructure, political interference in teacher selection and infrastructure development, poor supervision and control by government, gender discrimination and a poor evaluation and assessment system, that has made the existing provision of the education system incompatible with modern education system and therefore changes must be made. Khyber Agency has been totally isolated from the main stream political system. Political activities were not allowed and people could not participate in politics till 1998.the people were given the right to vote in 1998 general elections. The political party system is still very fragile in the area and controlled by the Federal government through the governor of Khyber Pashtoon khawa. Commissioner and political agent are answerable to the governor in what is a very complicated political system. There still prevails the most hated laws called FCR (frontier crime regulation) imposed by the British in colonial times. These were the draconian rules that were imposed by British government to suppress the people of Khyber Agency. Political involvement plays a vital role in the administration and governance of education. Peshawars regional government has a long established record of political interference in the administration and control of education while Khyber Agency is being weakened daily due to the insurgency and acts of terrorism, lack of accountability and nepotism. Teachers in the areas have many serious concerns. They are generally low paid, given the prevailing economic depression, and have often been driven to desperate measures to gain a modicum of their urgent demands such as improved working conditions. It is necessary to meet these demands to ensure that teachers, as the makers of the nations, can contribute to the development of students which in turn will result in the development of nation. Education is a constitutional right of every male and female. The high level of social anxiety and low literacy rate clearly indicate the need for fundamental changes in education system; such improvements would include a single medium of instruction for text books, sufficient funding and proper implementation of strategies and plans. Due to social and political pressure the government announces special reforms for the development of education sector that also applies in these two areas. At the start of the 21st Century, the Government of Pakistan took several initiatives underlining the education sector reform. Some of these reforms are National Education Policy (1998-2010); Education Sector Reforms (ESR) (2001-06), Education for All (EFA) by 2015, Ten Years Perspective Development Plan (2001-2011), Ten Years Perspective Development Plan (2001-2011), National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP), Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2 005-10, and Education Millennium Development Goals.(National education policy 2010) Despite the above mentioned reforms which has been introduced by the government at various times, their positive impact has yet to reach many rural areas like that of Khyber Agency. As a consequence these areas have become breeding grounds for terrorism which will not only endanger Pakistan but will export terrorism to other countries of the world and thus endangering the whole world. The following recommendations, if properly implemented could improve the currant education system in both regions but particularly in Khyber agency. The existing system of education needs to be thoroughly scrutinized and audited to ensure transparency in order to address poor governance and management issues. A specialized Management Centre in Elementary and Secondary Education Department to provide accountability and proper training without nepotism and bias should be introduced. There is a need to empowering school heads to ensure they are free from political interference and control. A separate commission in the style of the public service commission could make appointments and standardize all grades. Maximum administrative and financial autonomy needs to be devolved down to school level with accountability of the school heads to community level. This make the monitoring and evaluation process more efficient and effective and new technology could be devised for the process. A revolutionary emphasis on education, social and economic development is critical in order to lay the foundations for educational development and poverty reduction in both of these areas. Without social and economic development, change cannot occur, as change never occurs in a vacuum. Private partnerships are critical for capitalizing upon social and other stakeholder such as NGOs, voluntary organizations, general public and private sectors. All stakeholders could be subject to regulatory mechanisms to ensure effective education development in both Peshawar and Khyber Agency. In both the regions rigid and hard line behavior has breed a biased and inflexible system allowing no space for students analytical thinking. This also prevents the development of life long skills that prepare students to face challenges in their daily life by exercising problem solving skills. In order to address these drawbacks the design of the curriculum should be based upon native, behavioral, unbiased and scientific research so that concepts taught should be made vertically and horizontally clear and should incorporate local, regional and global values of democracy, secularism, federalism, broadmindedness and non-violence. Finally to improve the education system in these areas education could be alignment with market demands, a uniform medium of instruction, the strengthening of the science facilities, Knowledge Park, Science and Technology Park should be established in both regions to impart standards through robust control and administrative techniques. All these efforts will help to improve the standard of education by replacing traditional modes of instruction with the use of technologies and productive work and problem solving skills will take the place of routine types of activities which will in turn help develop a knowledge based economy that responds to the needs of the people in a sustainable manner.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Clays and Pottery Essay -- Art Molding Papers

Clays and Pottery Ceramicists, working either on a wheel or building by hand, define three main classes of clay bodies or mixtures: earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. These are divided on the basis of firing temperatures and the character (hardness, vitrification and durability) of the final material. Each clay body is composed of a mixture of clay minerals and other materials such as sand or fine gravel and "fluxing" agents which affect the color and texture when fired. Instead of discussing clays solely in terms of their chemical formulae, determined by x-ray diffraction, potters group clays into classes based on more general properties of the entire clay body, such as texture and color. One distinction potters make is between primary or residual clays, and secondary or sedimentary clays. Kaolin is the major primary clay which is used in ceramics. The use of the name "kaolin" for a clay body encompasses more than a body composed of pure kaolinite crystals, however, according to Rhodes, the composition of kaolin clays generally fall with in the bounds of kaolinite's composition: 46%silica, 39% alumina, 13% water (Rhodes p. 47). Kaolinite has the most basic 1:1 tetrahedral-octahedral clay structure, and maintains a simple and pure composition. So when kaolin is fired along with some silica and feldspar, it forms a highly refractory white solid. As the main ingredient in porcelain, Kaolin comprises, on average, about 50% of a porcelain mixture. Kaolin is not very plastic and thus presents a challenge to the potter in its pure state; however, some Kaolins are of sedimentary origin (such as those sifted from sands in Florida) and therefore have a smaller particle size which increases the plasticity. Generally though, kaoli... ...In dark colored ball clays containing highly expandible minerals, the increased amount of water in the system coming from the interlayer sites can lower the melting point. In addition, the pre-fired color of a clay body may be quite different from the fired color due to the fact that organic material often colors a wet clay, yet burns away during firing without leaving a stain. BIBLIOGRAPHY Chappell, James. The Potter's Complete Book of Clay and Glazes. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1977. Conrad, John, W. Contemporary Ceramic Formulas. New York: Macmillan, 1980. Rhodes, Daniel. Stoneware and Porcelain: The Art of High-Fired Pottery. New York: Chilton Company, 1959. Velde, Bruce (editor). Origin and Mineralogy of Clays: Clays and the Environment. New York: Springer, 1995. Velde, Bruce. Introduction to Clay Minerals. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1992.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Faulkner’s Relationship with his Daughter in the Film, William Faulkner

Faulkner’s Relationship with his Daughter in the Film, William Faulkner: A Life on Paper William Faulkner: A Life on Paper presents Faulkner as a struggling writer, father, and human being. He was moody, a periodic alcoholic, often in debt, affected in manner, and seemingly unable to make and retain significant relationships. Yet despite his apparent failings as a man (or perhaps because of them), Faulkner is perhaps the most successful and influential American literary artist of the 20th-century. Faulkner paved the way for many women writers to take up their pens and continue his literary quest into humankind’s psyche and the truth of our existence. His fathering of the many writers we will be reading this semester was a significant one; however, I am unsure if Jill Faulkner Sommers is able to forgive her father for his apparent neglect of fathering his true daughter. It is a commonly supposed that geniuses are able to produce their masterpieces because they are geniuses - because they do not act according to the customary social expectations of â€Å"average† human beings. They ...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Life and Contribution to the Development of the British Empire of J

The Life and Contribution to the Development of the British Empire of James Cook I) Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The purpose of this paper is to describe the life and the contribution to the development of the British Empire of one of the most important English explorers. It was in the second half of the 18th century when James Cook, originally a poor farm boy, explored and mapped vast uncharted areas of the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. However, James Cook was not ‘only’ an explorer. He can also be called a scientist – he managed to introduce new principles into seafaring and cartography. For better understanding, the paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction, which throws light on the purpose and structure of the paper. The second chapter is a brief introduction to the situation in Great Britain in the 18th century. It helps to explain why and how the so called â€Å"the First British Empire† was built up and later destroyed, and what led to the creation of â€Å"the Second British Empire†. The third chapter deals with Capt. Cook’s life and his three unique expeditions to the Pacific. The fourth part of the paper summarises Cook’s achievements and his contribution to the development of the British Empire. The fifth chapter forms the conclusion of the paper. II) A brief introduction to the situation in Great Britain in the 18th century. Great Britain became a great world power in this period. Under the leadership of William Pitt the Elder, Britain’s Prime Minister and at the same time a man who believed that the strength of the nation's economy depended on overseas expansion, the country gained vast territories all over the world and the so called â€Å"the First British Empire† was founded. The reasons why Great Britain was so successful can be divided into four groups: †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Revolutions† – the Industrial Revolution, a financial revolution and a revolution in agriculture made Britain the leading power in Europe. The creation of the Bank of England in 1694 helped to raise capital for colonial wars and to support British trade. At the beginning of the 18th century a series of mechanical inventions enabled the building of the world's first mechanised factories. A steam engine invented in1769 provided the power to drive machinery and thus enabled mass production of goods. The new ways of making products more quick... .... Impà ©rium. Praha: BB art, 1999 CD-ROM: Encarta 98 encyclopedia. „Cook, Captain James.â€Å" Microsoft. CD-ROM.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Microsoft Item: X03-22823 Web sites: res/bl-Cook1.htm

Monday, September 16, 2019

Toyota’s Ethics and Quality Assurance

Introduction Ethics and Quality are cornerstones for sustainability and the economic performance of Toyota and other entities within their supply chain. The two play a major role an in Toyotas strategic plan; they are woven in the very fabric of the culture of the organization; and they are integrated in risk management as a part of the contingency plan. This paper seeks to highlight Toyota’s concepts of ethics and quality; their continuous benchmarks for improvement as well as their use of knowledge management throughout their supply chain. Ethics in the Supply Chain As part of my analysis of Toyota’s underlying concept of ethics for supply chain management, the following is five essential values implemented by Toyota: 1. Contribute to the development and welfare of the country by working together, regardless of position, in faithfully fulfilling your duties; 2. Be ahead of the times through endless creativity, inquisitiveness, and pursuit of improvement; 3. Be practical and avoid frivolity; 4. Be kind and generous; strive to create a warm, homelike atmosphere; 5. Be reverent, and show gratitude for things great and small in thought and deed. These values are the guiding principles for their production and supply system. They incorporate three core philosophies: customer first, employee satisfaction and company stability. They have also worked in defining boundaries of the supply chain both internally as well as externally. Quality in the Supply Chain Toyota maintains a commitment by putting customers and quality first, and this means ensuring customer satisfaction through the products and services it offers. With respect to quality, Toyota implements â€Å"jikotei kanketsu†, which is a concept that holds true that defect-free process completion ensures that no defective product leaves any production process. Toyota also strives to preserve and improve quality at the world’s highest level and raise cost competitiveness to support high-quality and sustainable growth. They strive to project years into the future and make intentional earnest steps toward making improvements to each and every process. Total ocus and commitment on these ideas has made possible steady well-documented processes, Toyota’s ability to offer the highest quality products and services at the lowest possible cost, and getting it there in the shortest lead time. Knowledge Management Knowledge can be defined as a synergy framed from experience, values, data, evaluation, and expert insight. Knowledge management is a multi-discipline within an organization that makes the best use of knowledge by making it available, sharing it with everyone, and making sure that it is structured in a highly formalized system in an effort to achieve its stated goals and objectives. Toyotas knowledge management strategy focuses on reducing cost risk, leveraging existing assets to reduce cycle time, improve decision making, develop innovative technology faster, develop solutions to problems quicker, and to increase versatility within the workforce. References Bozarth, C. , & Handfield, R. (2008). Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management (2nd ed. ). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Book of E.H. Carr on ‘Twenty Years Crisis.’

This paper seeks to make a review the book of E.H. Carr on ‘Twenty Years Crisis.’ The book is about international relations (IR) hence discussion dwells mainly on related different IR concepts including utopianism and â€Å"extreme† realism.  The book was written by Edward Hallett Carr in 1939 and is believed to be one of the classics in international relations (IR).   I see two reasons why Carr’s book makes a special place in the field of IR. Firstly, since the book was first printed in 1939, it is believed that it greatly contributed to the establishment of international as an autonomous discipline; secondly, it has a quite good amount of texts in understanding classical realism.An observant mind would think that the book was written shortly before the outbreak of World War II – as the author himself has put in the preface to the first edition. The book is believed to have grown out of the author’s disappointment with utopianism and â₠¬Å"extreme† realism that appeared to him to belong to opposite poles that have developed in the study and practice of international politics after the Great War. Utopianism is believed to have its roots from the philosophical liberalism and gained popularity in the first decade after WWI which included the view that there is goodness in man and of humankind as united by a substantial harmony of interests; the existence of natural law; and a reliance on the constructive consequence of public opinion on politics.Using the doctrine of utopianism, one could see the creation of the League of Nations and the liberal international economic system. But for author Carr, he saw the opposite, arguing that these two liberal institutions were weak which actually uncovered the weaknesses of the utopian approach.   It was Carr’s view, that the political and economic events in Europe occurring before the World II proved that principles like the universal interest in peace or the bene fits of open markets were not really true in the real sense since these developments were dependent on a distribution of power favouring the status quo countries which included Great Britain and the United States at the time.Carr’s emphasis on power in international politics, however, does not preclude him from disagreeing with those who take this realist principle to its extremes. He looks at politics as a constant quest for power in which imagination does not play any role, and making an allowance for morality as always relative and functional to interests. Thus he argued that the kind of realism developed in the decade before World War II, made utopianism’s opposite mistake that is analysis made makes purpose lacking in meaning.   Carr’s contemporaries including â€Å"heirs of Machiavelli† were proposing a completely pragmatic approach to politics, which had detached any emotional appeal, finite goal, or ground for ethical judgment, which Carr readil y found to have no basis.This would leave any one then reading this book wander the way one then should look at world politics.   The author then made his theory of international relations clearer in the second half of the book.   What he theorized as is that power or drive for supremacy is the main driving force of international politics. He denied not the fact that every state has selfish interest and that no interaction in the international arena can be well explained without making an assumption to the selfish nature of states. These countries according to Carr lust for influence and to the conflictual character of politics. He defined power to be referring to military as the most important, because of the possibility of war that was always present then.Power could also be economic, or ideological. He thus believed that power is not the only force at work in the international arena. As to how can this be, Carr, as distinguished from the â€Å"extreme† realists, believ es that morality plays a role in politics.   His conception of ethics, however, is not embodied as part of one he is opposing, the theory of the utopian philosopher. Instead what Carr theorized on is a â€Å"realistic† morality, found and felt in the actual behaviour of the states that recognize each other as belonging to the same community. Commonality for membership in the same community lies with similar goals and â€Å"feelings† of said members.There is basis to look at the authors position on ethics in international relations as having significant limitations which should include the need and concern for self-preservation) so that denying not to have   any function in politics may sound to be baseless since man must not be forgotten that he can be sociable as well as egoistic. Thus in trying to find the middle ground or the so called â€Å"golden mean† that is between complete power and purely morality based on utopianism, Carr’s analysis of inte rnational law did show his plausible view in international relation. It may be just logical to understand his argument not to obey the law because it is â€Å"good† or out of pure imposition.He believes then powerful countries then do so make decisions because law gives certainty and regularity to an order and such situations do show both the systemic distribution of power and the consent of its participants. What can be inferred from Carr’s position is that, the main challenge for a system undergoing a redistribution of power via peaceful transformations of its legal order moral principles should be maintained as still important part of the process.To conclude, it may be said that the Carr’s book on The Twenty Years’ Crisis is a classic of International Relations and it’s a complex although others believe that has its simple structure.   Beyond the complexity it must be noted the author’s arguments revealed his concern the method of Inter national Relations as well as its substance. Carr’s attacking utopianism and â€Å"extreme† realism limits not only views of the human nature and of the essence of politics, but his good grasp of the relationships of thing like those between pragmatism and ethics in the study of politics making a reader to fill in some interpretation for the solution.   What must be remembered also is not his narration of the history of the inter-war international system, nor pure theoretical discussion as show in his refusal to transform arguments into universally models as he seemed to argue on case to case basis.Reference:Carr, E. (2001) The Twenty Years' Crisis 1919 -1939: An Introduction to the Study of   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   International Relations (Paperback), as updated by Michael Cox

Sunday, September 15, 2019

A paragraph on APA citation Racism in Middle East Essay

              Racism is one of the biggest challenges for people living in Middle East. It exists between domestic citizens and foreigners, across the ethnic groups and religions. Although religion could be the only way to integrate people, it has not been possible and instead it forms part of racism. Akbaba (2009 p. 324) argued that, â€Å"the deliberate and selective restrictions on religious minority groups may strengthen the ethnoreligious identity of those groups†. Racism is the main cause conflicts and wars among communities thus hindering it socioeconomic progress and as a result, the society lives in poverty. According to Ahmed, Nicolson, & Spencer, (2000) racism hinders populations from getting education and advancing their career thus their literacy progress being hindered. Therefore, it is important to find solution in the region so that people could assume their socioeconomic roles to improve their lives. However, this has not been an easy task to Middle East. Poor governance and political interference had led to worsening of the situation through trying to get solution through force by police officers and other authorities rather than solving it.                   The executive and legislative measures that have followed these initiatives ‘ have included mass arrests, secret and indefinite detentions, prolonged detention of ‘‘ material witnesses, ’’ closed hearings and use of secret evidence, government eavesdropping on attorney-client conversations, FBI home and work visits, wiretapping, seizures of property, removals of aliens with technical visa violations, and mandatory special registration, (Semati, 2010 p. 265).                  Lack of racism solution in Middle East can be attributed to selfish leaders who would like to remain in power for longer time and ignorant citizens who are not concerned about their development of the region. According to Ahmed et al, (2000) people in Bangladesh are aware of racism and its effects but have no time to solve the issues. A solution to racism can be found through courageous leaders who are informed and are concerned with the future of Middle East (Cohen-Almagor, 2013; Karsh, 2012; Baumann, 2013). References Ahmed, B., Nicolson, P., & Spencer, C. (2000). The social construction of racism: the case of second generation Bangladeshis. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10(1), 41-46. Akbaba, Y. (2009). Who discriminates more? comparing religious discrimination in Western democracies, Asia and the Middle East. Civil Wars, 11(3), 321-358 Baumann,, L. (2013). The impact of national culture on project management in the Middle East. Lars Baumann, Cohen-Almagor, R. (2013). The failed peace process in the Middle East 1993-2010. Israel Affairs. N.p Karsh, E. (2012). The Middle East’s real apartheid. Journal for The Study of Antisemitism, p. 38. Semati, M. (2010). Islamophobia, culture and race in the age of empire. Cultural Studies, 24(2), 256-275. Source document

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Exceptional Figures In Legend Of Sleepy Hollow English Literature Essay

The attitudes of the people toward the exceeding figures in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow will be discussed in this paper. In The Grave, society considered the grave to be an exceeding figure. Ichabod and the Headless Horseman in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow were considered outstanding characters by the community. Peoples had assorted emotions about Brom Bones and it was difficult to state what the people were believing. Robert Blair ‘s work, The Grave, shows the attitude the people had refering the glumness of the grave. Ichabod was tall and lanky with immense custodies and narrow shoulders. He besides had long weaponries and legs. He had green eyes and his olfactory organ could state which way the air current was blowing. Ichabod ever put the load on the strong alternatively of the weak and helped out in his vicinity. When Ichabod did n't demo up at school where he was a schoolmaster for yearss, people thought that he was dead. I think possibly he did n't desire to cover with all the play with Hans Van Ripper and the town ‘s people. He helped with the vicinity choir and was considered the â€Å" singing-master † of the group. He was handpicked by the people to take the vocalizing during Sunday church services. Ichabod ‘s personality besides had an evil, anti- hero side. For illustration, while he was taking attention of the weak babes, Ichabod would be looking for the beautiful lady of the house. He wanted them to make things for him, such as do his repasts and possibly other favours. The lone ground he was a instructor was to have free repasts and live the easy life. He would travel to the weak in order to acquire what he wanted. Brom Bones, another character in the Legend of Sleepy Hollow, is considered to be an outstanding figure and an anti- hero in his community. I feel that he was considered a bad cat when jobs in town occurred. Peoples in town had assorted feelings about him. They did n't cognize what to believe of him. Every clip there was a bash, all of the town ‘s people would ever fault him for the battle. Brom Bones liked to affect the Dutch by demoing his witchery to the married womans and comets and hiting stars. In The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, another extraordinary character is the shade. There were many people in the town who were afraid to travel out tardily at dark, because they feared the Headless Horseman was doing his unit of ammunitions to the church graveyard. The fable is that it was the â€Å" shade of a Hessian cavalryman † , whose caput had been carried off by a cannon-ball in some unidentified conflict during the Revolutionary War. â€Å" It was of all time and anon seen by the state common people travel rapidlying along in the somberness of dark. † I think the Headless Horseman is merely seeking to acquire back to the conflict to happen his caput. He ever returns to the God's acre before daytime Begins. I do n't believe the Headless Horseman is person to be feared ; he is merely seeking urgently to happen his caput. In Robert Blair ‘s The Grave everyone ‘s grave is considered glooming and awful and an exceeding figure to society. Everyone in this narrative thinks the grave is bad and non a topographic point to travel. For illustration, in the narrative it mentions the grave as â€Å" the keys of snake pit and decease. † Peoples were afraid because life was like Eden and death is like traveling to hell. In the narrative, Blair besides talks about how peaceable and unagitated it is. When he uses the word peace, he is speaking about how the organic structure is when 1 ‘s true psyche eventually finds it. One will eventually turn to dust and be given back to the land which they were given as a gift of life. There is one grave at the graveyard that ever vanishes at dark. It ‘s a freshly opened grave. I feel this means that when a individual is dead, they can come back to life. It reminds me that people are truly merely populating their lives off of borrowed clip and life is non to be taken for granted. Time is cherished, which is something that people tend to bury. I do n't believe it was their whole organic structures, but merely their liquors. Even in today ‘s society, there is a telecasting show called â€Å" The Haunting, † where they find evil liquors inquiring about. I think all liquors that are left on Earth are merely evil liquors desiring to harm all the good people in our society. In The Grave, it discusses people holding life after decease. For illustration, it states that â€Å" Of the good Man is PEACE. † I think this shows that if a individual dies a good individual, they have nil to worry approximately. The people during the Romantic Time period should hold been able to travel to heaven and non be worried about the grave and the result of their life. If a individual lives a good life, so they will travel to heaven. A individual should n't be afraid of deceasing. A individual should be happy and rejoice because they are traveling to a better topographic point. In The Grave, there are non people that think about decease and themselves at the same clip. For illustration, the book states â€Å" as if to larn to decease were no concern of ours. † I think the people back so merely did n't cognize when their clip would be so they did n't brood on it. They knew that it was a portion of life and it happened to everybody. Peoples of those times should hold thought about it some ; it ‘s foolish non to believe about it at all. A individual does n't cognize if tomorrow is traveling to their last twenty-four hours. God can stop this universe whenever he wants ; it ‘s his and he created it. I hope that people of that clip thought about the true significance of life for God every twenty-four hours. All in all, the extraordinary figures did cognize the difference between life and decease. Ichabod and the Headless Horsemen were good known by their communities. They were known as non all bad, but more of a split personality. I think Brom Bones besides had some good qualities about him because he did assist in his community. Peoples did n't merely look at the glumness in the grave, but besides on the bright side of the hereafter.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Marketing - Essay Example Marketing has been defined differently by various authors. As per Eztel, Walker and Stanton (2003), ‘Marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and distribute want-satisfying products to target markets in order to achieve organisational objectives’. On the other hand, Kotler (2003) defines marketing as ‘a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with each others’. These two definitions provide significant insight into the main operations of marketing, vis-Ã  -vis planning, pricing, promotion and distribution. The American Marketing Association provides another definition of marketing as ‘the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational goals’ (Bennett, 1995). There are three main eras through which marketing has evolved as a revolutionary concept and has taken its current form. These include product orientation period (Eztel, Walker and Stanton, 2003) in which demand were greater than supply, manufacturing and production were limited and industries were not fully developed or capable to take care of the needs of the market. In this period, the main focus of the companies were on producing large quantities of products to satisfy the ever more increasing wants and needs of the target market. Little, if at all, efforts were used to be put in the marketing of products through searching the customers. This was followed by sale orientation stage (Eztel, Walker and Stanton, 2003). In this period, customers used to have relatively lower purchasing power, hence companies began hard selling through overly aggressive advertising and heavy reliance on promotional activities. In the post world war II era of 1950s and onwards, market orientation has emerged as

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Interpretation Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Interpretation Paper - Essay Example Instead, he suggest that why wouldn’t people appreciate that they can as well handle the matter by themselves through reconciliation. Paul reminds the Corinthians that they would have power to judge the angels and as such, it is ridiculous that they would subject themselves to other men, who do not believe in their faith, in the form of judges, to handle their cases. It is not like Paul does not appreciate the role of the judges, but rather, he confronts the weakness within the church, to the extent to which non among them would be able to stand for the rest to provide counsel. The intension of the author was to inculcate the spirit of reconciliation among the believers in the Corinth. This was ultimately to appreciate the spirit of forgiveness among the believers, and never to expose their differences to the non-believers. Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust and not before the saint? (1st Corinthians , 6:1).1 Literally, Paul is putting the role of the jury in question based on the faith they harbor. Though the question seem to be directed to the believers in Corinth, the fairness of the courts in handling the Christians cases is put to question. Sucintly, Christians are challenged to appreciate that there is no fairness in courts that would match forgiveness in Christ. The answer to Paul’s question is no! In faith every Christian should forgive others and never to seek revenge. I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you? No not one that shall be able to judge between his brethren? (1st Corinthians, 6:2) At this instance, Paul presents a case which contradicts traditional understanding of Christianity. First, there would not be any need to judge since judgment is left to God alone. But the answer is yes! There are wise men among the Christians who are able to provide counsel but not to judge them. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit